Why some people age faster than others
What exactly happens in the aging? The ability to eliminate waste proteins seems to be both the aging of the brain, as well as on the entire life-span impact. An international research team acquired a new fundamental insights about the process of aging.
Researchers from the Leibniz-Institute for age research decrypted, a process that seems to play in the aging a significant role. The better an organism is able to dispose of used proteins, the slower the aging seems to progress. The results of the study were recently presented in the journal “Molecular Systems Biology”.
The years of life determine the biological age
With increasing aging the risk for degenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer’s increases. The ageing is not only determined by the years of life. Some people with 90 years of age are fitter than other age of 70. The Leibniz-researchers have found a possible explanation for why this is so.
What happens in the aging of the brain?
As the Team reported to accumulate with age, increasingly so-called toxic protein aggregates in the brain. These consist of aggregations of predominantly incorrect or incomplete folded proteins that can affect neuronal functions. The international research group for the first time to document the processes of brain aging in a fish model. While decrypted, the scientists run by scientists, the temporal sequence of molecular events in aging.
The balance of proteins
Under the term “protein homeostasis” includes all processes involved in the synthesis, folding, Transport, localization and degradation of proteins. These processes need to engage in a complex Interaction each other. The resulting balance of all living organisms have a tremendous impact on the aging. Disturbances in this process can have a direct impact on the life span.
Error-free protein homeostasis increases the life expectancy
In the studies on the Turquoise base flag fish (N. Furzeri) Splendor, the researchers were able to gain new insights on the aging. They showed that an early disturbance of the protein homeostasis-together game is associated with a greater formation of toxic protein aggregates. Fish in which the protein homeostasis flows smoothly, and had a longer life expectancy.
Protein aggregates in conjunction with degenerative diseases
In humans, the toxic protein aggregates play an important role in health in old age. Because the most common neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, als and Parkinson’s, such accumulations of errors occur liable proteins increased. Since the life expectancy of the people, on average, continues to grow, and are urgently needed effective treatment against degenerative diseases. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to clarify the question of how and why protein aggregates during the aging process in the brain.
Different and yet the same
In the current study, it was tried to this question in the Turquoise splendor to clarify basic killifish. The fish is particularly well suited for ageing research, since he is the shortest-living Vertebrate that can be bred under laboratory conditions. Its lifespan is between three and 12 months. Despite the big difference to the people of the fundamental ageing processes in the brain is similar in humans and magnificence basic Killi strong.
Half of all the proteins involved in the aging process
The researchers divided the fish according to age groups (young, adult and old). In each group, the protein homeostasis was analyzed. “When comparing the data for the different age groups, we found that about half of the about 9000 proteins, we were able to quantify, are affected by the aging process,” explains Dr. Alessandro Ori from the research team.
Age-related changes to the proteins
The proteins of the protein complexes in which individual proteins by a specific Plan be put together to form. In the case of such a Complex is the correct structure must be ensured, so that the proteins can fulfill the assigned task. Our cells have mechanisms, which ensure the correct structure of this Complex. With increasing age, this tightly regulated process is always error-prone.
As a result, more and more protein aggregates, which are under suspicion arise of vital functions in the cells to influence. The processes that occur in the ageing of fish, was able to discover the study team also in aging mice. This indicates, the researchers suggest that it is a universal feature of brain aging.
Life span of fishes could be predicted
“Since the aging is a result of closely related events, it was difficult to find early release. The decrease in the proteasome activity is an early sign of brain aging, but also for the processes of Aging in the entire organism relevant? To answer this, we compared the individual changes in the proteasome activity with the individual life span of the Killifishes,“ adds Professor Cellerino on the research team.
The researchers found in their analysis of important information in the genes. On the basis of certain changes in the Expression of genes, which carry information for proteaso times proteins in, and succeeded in learning the academics, the life span of the individual fish to predict individuals previously.
The drivers of aging discovered
“The fish that showed at the beginning of life, a stronger decrease in the proteasome transcripts, lived significantly shorter than fish that were in the proteasome expression to maintain or to increase”, concludes the research team. This finding support the Hypothesis that reduction of proteasome activity is an early driver of aging in vertebrates.
What are the main findings about aging are?
The research team showed for the first time, that the maintenance of proteasome activity is an important factor for the correct composition of protein complexes involved in biological key functions such as protein synthesis, protein degradation and energy production. Similarly, the researchers were able to demonstrate that these activities directly affect the life span of an organism. These findings offer new approaches for therapy against neurodegenerative diseases and also in aging itself. (vb)